Stop the illegal sale of coral products

When corals are threatened all over the world and are dying at an alarming rate, The Times of India is advertising calcium supplement called CORCAL, which is made from 100 % natural coral grains. A tagline of the product reads,  go ahead take control, its time you live healthy inside and stay beautiful outside.

Well! this is exactly this corporate LupinLife, Corcal and many other products that are sold on Amazon.in is doing– taking control.

Corals are protected under the schedule I of the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972. The trade of this species in any form, in any part of India, is strictly prohibited under Sec. 49 (B) of the act. It is illegal to collect (dead or alive), keep, kill, transport, sell or advertise coral and their products in India. In other words, selling this product is equivalent to selling a product of a tiger skin. The company claims that the coral grains are from Okinawa, Japan, without realising that corals are listed in the CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species), Appendix I and IIand Japan and 140 other countries including India are signatories to it. It means that their international trade has to be closely controlled to avoid over-exploitation and to guarantee that trade will not be detrimental to the survival of the species in the wild.

There are no doubts that due to commercial exploitation and unsustainable use of marine resources several species are gone extinct from the wild. A recent report estimated that 75 percent of remaining coral reefs are currently threatened, and many have already been lost. Even some of the most remote and pristine reefs are losing species. To protect the corals, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), the Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice (CCPCJ), the International Convention on Migratory Species (CMS), the World Wildlife Federation (WWF), the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL), the World Customs Organization (WCO), the Economic and Social Council, the Security Council and the General Assembly of the UN, have set strict protocol to ban the trade of wildlife and related products.

Yet, LupinLife, Corcal has an Indian website and they are promoting their product in India using mainstream print media as their main channel of advertisement. In addition, there are at least 30 products that are selling coral calcium under different names.  It’s astounding and alarming how openly Corporates sidetrack the Law that is meant to protect corals. #Sanctuary Asia #Ministry of Environment, Forests & Climate Change, Government of India #TRAFFIC, India Office #WWF_India #Wild-life crime control Bureau #NationalBiodiversityAct please notice and take appropriate action.

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Advertisement of CORCAL, published on 11th June in the Times of India

Hopefully,  the tide of unrelenting trade in corals will turn and LupinLife, Corcal and similar Corporates stop selling products derived from corals or any wildlife.


 

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Posted in Science reporting

The hook-line-and-sinker of Andaman fisheries

 “Let your hook always be cast. Some fish will eat the bait and the free food will come your way”.

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This was a popular belief in the Andaman Islands until recently. However, these days, alas, one can’t be so sure of a nibble. Casual chats with senior fishermen are dotted with stories of dwindling fish numbers and how these folk are struggling to make ends meet. The pattern common in much of tropics. Once abundant fish are rare and those in demand are getting exploited at an alarming rate.

So why then are the fishermen still spending time, money and energy in catching fish?

The answer is both simple and complicated. The simple version: the fishermen are hopeful and are adapting to economic impulses of the market. They are responding to changes in supply and demand, seeking new markets, exploring new fishing grounds and deeper areas to keep themselves afloat. The complicated answer, however, is wrapped up in the global economics of seafood, a research area that, while still in its infancy, is important to understand for the sake of saving the remaining fish stocks of the islands.

In the early history of commercial fisheries involved a focus on Trochus and Sea Cucumbers, which then shifted to sharks, crabs and pelagic species. However, in the past ten years, there has been a transformation of fisheries from subsistence fisheries to the fisheries that woo to the demands of new markets. One particular species of grouper (Plectropomus leopardus), commonly called as ‘dollar macchi’ or CT (coral trout) is the main driver of this transformation. The demand for this fish started in early 2000. Once considered as a trash fish, they suddenly started selling for the higher price as eating a red coloured fish is considered a sign of prosperity in China, where nearly all of these fish are headed. Today a significant proportion of the landed fish stocks are exported to Southeast Asia. In addition, there is no effective monitoring of resource extraction trends and poor, often outdated and non-contextual management regulations.

The most commonly used gear for catching the dollar fish is a hook-and-line, where the hook is set to cast, the fish nibbles and gets caught in the process. Along with groupers, many other fish get caught who nibble the bait ranging from snappers, barracudas, jacks to sharks. Most of these fish groups are top predators of the sea. They feed on smaller fish and invertebrates such as crabs, shrimps and lobster and thus playing an important role in maintaining the health of coral reef ecosystem. Depletion of their stock has bitter consequences for the island marine ecosystem.

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Multiple species of groupers including highly valued Plectropomus sp.

These islands were hit by the tsunami in 2004. Memory of local people divides the Islands into before and after the tsunami. Immediately after the tsunami, the fisheries took a toll as many small-scale fishermen lost their boats and nets to the vicious waves of the tsunami. The island administration promoted this archipelago for tourism, whereas the fisheries department worked towards rejuvenating the island’s fisheries. Resorts and restaurants mushroomed to cater to the influx of tourists. Most tourists preferred eating fish that has tender meat, and thus the demand for prawns, crabs and travellys, barracudas, snapper fish increased. These new demands put additional pressure on the Island’s fish stocks. To top this, global warming and changing climate pose further problems to the Island fisheries. As carbon dioxide levels rise, the oceans become more acidic, rendering the water inhospitable to marine species. The rising water temperatures affect reproduction and survival. They also increase overall nutrient load in the water column by fostering harmful algal blooms and impacts fisheries. In addition to the 2004 tsunami, disturbances in the recent past, which include three major coral bleaching events have impacted the reef ecosystems, resulting in habitat loss for reef fish.

Some suggest fish farming as a solution to meet growing demand for seafood–a blue revolution in this century to mirror match MS Swaminathan’s green revolution of the past. In the Andaman Islands, the rearing of commercially important species such as grouper fish has been tested in cages in Chidiyatapu region in south Andaman. The idea is that young ones of fish are reared in aquariums and later allowed to grow in sea water inside the cages. Once they reach a certain size they are harvested as fish stocks. However, various studies have shown that cage culture is easier said than done; it requires a lot of maintenance and comes with its own host of ecological problems.

Should we eat certain fish species or should we be selective in our choices are real questions? It’s a fact that catching fish out of the sea has an impact on the environment. Yet wild-caught fish are free from additives, less costly in terms of carbon footprints budget than pork or beef. And, unlike some sectors of the farming and aquaculture industries, wild fishing doesn’t depend on intensive doping with antibiotics, the gross simplification of habitats or animals reared in intensive care wards.

Studies have shown that the fish, like other animals, compete and cooperate, breed and migrate and are sentient beings.  There is considerable knowledge of the management of fisheries from other parts of the world. A few initiatives tell you what fish to eat during which month. For mainland India, there is ‘Know your Fish’ and ‘InSeason Fish’ programs that encourage consumers to make informed choices when it comes to eating fish. There are other programs in the west that endorse and encourage fishermen to practice sustainable fisheries and even issue licenses based on the fishing practices they follow.

Setting-up Marine protected areas (MPA), a simple premise to set aside a part of the seascape, which is devoid of any human activity, are known to have long-lasting impacts on fisheries sector. Such MPAs can be both a safety valve and a treasure trove for marine life. They can act as insurance against natural catastrophes. Fish can prosper in the protected areas and thus spill over into the “unprotected” sea. In the Andaman Islands, we do have two prominent marine protected areas, the Mahatma Gandhi Marine National Park (MGMNP) in South Andaman and Rani Jhansi Marine National Park (RJMNP) in Ritchie’s archipelago. Besides, there are 105 protected Islands where fishing is prohibited. However, most of these areas function as mere paper parks. Fishers who live on the fringes of these MPAs complain that their livelihoods are being ignored and they often show lack of compliance inside the park. Except for MGMNP in other protected areas patrolling, monitoring and implementation of the law framework is weak. Besides, the issue of poaching for fish resources by foreign poachers continues.

 The Andaman and Nicobar Islands, which is also a marine biodiversity hotspot encompasses multiple habitat types that support a range of fisheries also are home to various indigenous communities that have relied on marine resources for subsistence purposes for centuries. People from different parts of India have settled in these islands and each community follows different practices, gears that they have learnt from the Indian mainland. Considering social-cultural and ecological setting of the island, the Andaman Islands would require different management strategies.

At present, only seven fish are protected under the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972. Fishery monitoring agencies have been collecting coarse landing statistics of fish groups, with no separation of species or even family and huge gaps exist in our knowledge of fisheries and there is limited documentation of the status and impact that fishing practices have on marine ecosystems and fisher livelihoods. Economic analysis of fisheries would be useful to demonstrate the short and long term advantages of well-managed fisheries. The lack of reliable data and trained manpower to handle fisheries also highlights the need to improve the dissemination of information so that strategies for the management of these events can be implemented. The popular belief that the only time we are supposed to stay off seafood is during the monsoon no longer holds true.

Given the potentially negative consequences of catching one particular fish species such as grouper fish, an ecosystems-based approach to fisheries management can be a way forward, which also encompasses conservation of marine biodiversity. While a bit vague, the idea is to take into consideration habitat of fish when making management decisions. From the viewpoint of the ecosystem, it is important to know how overfishing of one species affects another species. In particular, exploring offshore resources while protecting inshore fisheries, understanding of fishing community perspective, promoting recreational fisheries, which brings better returns per fish, enforcing patrolling and dealing with all illegal fishing can go a long way in managing Island fisheries.

Conserving marine biodiversity and managing fisheries is a must, after all, it’s not about the ‘fish’, but it’s about food and job security of thousands of islanders who are dependent on the fisheries sector. It is time that we take effective steps to manage island fisheries, to insulate Andaman from global fishing pressures. If we don’t take timely actions, then the common hook-and-line fishing method can be a sinker for the Andaman island fisheries.


An edited version of this article was first published in the WIRE.

Posted in Science reporting

Ghosts of the sea—lost nets that kill marine life

A by-product of fishing industry– lost or abandon nets also referred to as ghost nets are as deadly as their name implies.

Drifting with highs and lows of the ocean currents, they often become tangled together with ropes, buoys and other debris to form what are known as ghost net conglomerates and they swallow or ensnare everything that comes on its way including marine turtles, dugongs, dolphins and whales.

Amongst marine life, the most affected species is Olive Ridley turtle. They are ocean-dwelling, meaning they spend a considerable amount of time in open water, swimming in search of food, foraging in different habitats, looking for bottom living organisms such as crabs and lobsters.

During our recent coral reef surveys in the islands, we encountered what appeared to be a discarded net floating in the water. Our first reaction was to go closer to examine the net, and when we saw the flippers of a turtle we jumped into the water to check out if the turtle was alive. The turtle was indeed alive, but struggling for life, as it was surrounded by a net and dead snapper. Schools of juvenile Golden Trevally (Gnathanodon speciosus), Scissortail Sergeant (Abudefduf sexfasciatus), Fusiliers (Caesio varilineata) and Rudderfish (Kyphosus sp.) were swimming nearby.

We cut the derelict net off from the turtle and brought the turtle on board to check for injuries. Once out of the water, it was passive but harshly gulping in air. We checked out signs of external injuries and quickly released the turtle back into the water.

The following pictures show a ghost net, turtle, dead snapper tangled into a mass that could have been wandering in the ocean for months. The detailed report can be found here.

 

Entangeled juvenile olive ridley turtle_Andaman Islands_Vardhan Patankar

Entangled juvenile olive ridley inside the ghost net

Inside the ghost net_Olive Rodley_Picture Vardhan Patankar

Ghost net conglomerates

On the way to Joy of freedom

Joy of freedom

Enbound happiness of swimming into the ocean

The happiness of swimming into the ocean

Non-profitable charity Olive Ridley Project actively fights ghost gear in the Indian Ocean; their efforts rely heavily on volunteers and every single person who collects discarded netting, removes a ghost net or disentangles an animal is helping their cause. In addition, olive ridley turtle project relies on marine biologists, fishermen sea wanderers to collect data on ghost nets and sea turtle entanglements.

As per their website, they have recovered 600 net conglomerates since 2014 and rescued 80 sea turtles! While you are on a dive trip or travelling between the islands, and if you spot a ghost net, please report it or, if safe to do so, remove it – you will contribute to efforts of olive ridley project and save the life of a magnificent ocean dwelling turtle.

 


 

 

 

Posted in Science reporting, Underwater | Tagged , , , , ,

ISLAND ADVENTURES

Tanvi Vaidyanathan is a PhD Candidate at the Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries, UBC. Her PhD is on the conservation of incidentally caught marine organisms, using the case study of seahorses in India. When not in front of a computer, she can be found on the nearest beach, camera in hand. She posts on Instagram as @ostentatiousoxymoron

Guest post by Tanvi Vaidyanathan


Working primarily on marine policy, I jumped at the opportunity to volunteer, on field, with Vardhan and Elrika over the summer of 2012. Any illusions of an easy summer were shattered when within hours of landing at the base I embarked on data entry involving the Abudefdufs’, Epinephalus’, Chaetodons’, Cephalopholis’, and Zebrasomas’, to name a few, thrown at me! I quickly settled into the routine of data entry with Elrika. While over time I became familiar with the scientific names, the common names continue to elude me!

Spending a summer at the ANET base was quite a challenge, as it possessed everything I was terrified off, crabs, snakes and lizards the foremost amongst them.  While Vardhan and Elrika were out sampling the region in and around the Wandoor Marine National Park, I spent the first few days brushing up on my SCUBA skills and embarking on what would result in a marathon Advanced SCUBA!

Andaman Islands_ picture Tanvi Vaidyanathan

My first trip with them was out towards Duncan Passage. While the guys did a minimum of around 2 dives a day, I got to snorkel for one and dive during the other. Responsibilities included marking the GPS locations and kitting up. Originally it also involved the monitoring of filling the tanks and that was exciting to be a part of the process from the filling to the de-kitting. Days on the dunghi with Uncle Bernie, Agu and Saw da were always action-packed. Days traditionally started at 5 am, with a quick run to the islands for an early morning stomach cleansing (with the added joy of beware of crocodiles signs to read while at it!), followed by tea and rusks and the first dive of the morning. Lunch was all but done by 9 am, with food comprising of any fish that Saw da could capture.

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Island beauty, rains simply added to the charm of the place

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Home!

Rapid improvements could be observed in his spearfishing skill as the number, size and frequency of fish on the boat improved. 0ur second dive by 1 pm latest and the remainder of the evening was spent in locating a suitable fresh water source so that we could freshen up and sit with the data before sunset. In the absence of a computer, data had to be entered by hand, followed by a photography session to ensure that even if the pages got wet the data was saved! The dives at North Cinque and off the Sisters were simply breathtaking, with every kind of fish imaginable and of course scratching seeing a turtle underwater off my bucket list. Everyday additional entertainment was provided courtesy of the search for fresh water, with every bath location more exotic than the previous. While there were a couple of false alarms, the dugong eluded us, and the one-day we were actually lucky enough to see seagrass the heavens opened up, I guess it was a sign! After about 5 days of living off the Dunghi, with 6 of us strategically crammed during sleep hours, we returned to the ANET base.

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Post-sampling

It felt good to be back on land, but mighty strange. We were faced with real-world problems of power outages and water shortages and seemed more crippled dealing with it than when offshore. The week was largely spent entering the data and preparing the action plan for the remainder of the summer. It was during this time that I realized I seemed to be missing some data, which then sent me off on an obsession that would keep me occupied for most of the summer. We were getting a little too comfortable on land, and after procrastinating our second trip by a couple of days we were off again, this time it was towards the North Passage. Starting from Ross we steadily made our way northwards. I was faced with the additional challenge of the dunghi lacking a ladder on this trip. Every dive and snorkelling opportunity now got a whole more challenging and exciting as I found a different way to climb the boat at every stop. Attempts included climbing on the rudder at the back of the boat, being manually lifted out of the water, having the boat slightly tilted to one side and well finally me making it over and flopping on to the boat like a freshly caught fish. There is a good reason that my middle name should have been “Grace.” Amidst cheering, sweet-talking and finally threats of being left behind by Vardhan I managed to make it aboard.

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Enter aExpedition team: L to R: Tanvi, Elrika, Uncle Bernie, Saw Da, Saw Agu and Vardhancaption

The second trip had spots as stunning as the first. Giant puffers, barracudas and groupers, anemones, eels, sea snakes, nudibranchs and the usual suspects including the clownfish, the butterfly fish, the parrots… You name it we saw it! The diving was spectacular with a ton of smaller fish, and corals like the brain corals, stone corals and branching corals in reasonable shape and showing decent (Fine, we’ll quantify that! On a scale of 1 to 5, lets say 3!) recruitment in quite a few of the sites we dived at. On our way in search of a reef, we did manage to get very lost and, well with a degree of exaggeration nearly land up in Burma! The standard of cooking during the second trip had really improved, and as each of us got into a routine the dunghi became home! This trip, however, had the added challenge of dealing with the turning winds! 6 people under a tarpaulin during the night was not a lot of fun, and daily prior to sleeping we would come up with an emergency plan in the event of a rain, which Elrika and I would have to hastily execute in the middle of the night!

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This is how we roll in our free time!

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While the visibility of the water was progressively deteriorating, it also gave us the opportunity to observe other organisms. In our last dive at Guitar, we had a deluge of nudibranchs and a whole lot of lobsters curiously looking out. The plethora of life in the region still has me spellbound! During the course of our trip, we also learnt the value of fish in any form, as we managed to barter some dried fish ( I must have been the happiest to see it go!) for a quick recharge of Vardhan’s camera battery!. The dugong, however, continued to elude us!

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Dried fish, Our Saviour!

The summer opened my eyes to the world of possibility for work in the region and I hope to return soon. In addition to entering data on the fish species in the region, the three of us would also sit down and rate various coral parameters on a scale of 1 to 5.  The beauty of each site still stands out and it quite often blew our minds, resulting in our site names even being named “Amazing!” While people say going in with no expectations adds to the charm, going in with the expectations I did the Andamans lived up to everyone! The work being carried out by Vardhan and Elrika was every bit as exciting and innovative as I’d imagined it to be. I learnt a lot over the summer, from trip preparations, logistics, man-management and dive preparations, to the actual data collection, data entry and hopefully soon the data analysis.

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Anchors down or celebrating a successful summer?

On the personal front I had three major achievements too, I can now fold a sleeping bag (without that desperately lost, painfully helpless look which resulted in Elrika folding it for me at the end of watching me attempt for half an hour), I can mostly climb the boat without a ladder (throw in a croc and I’m pretty sure I will now do it!) and of course the fact I can kind of sort of free dive (from not breaking the water surface, 5 meters is a miracle!). It was one amazing adventure, and while the work involved everything from sharpening pencils, lifting tanks, and everything else imaginable, the summer was one great all-round learning experience that I would not trade in for anything (despite the sand fly bites that left me limping with oozing sores!)

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After surviving the snakes, the lizards, a tsunami warning, the crabs, stingrays, I finally came home limping and freezing during a 43 degree Celsius day in Chennai. My conqueror? A SET OF STAIRS!

The good news, despite being at each other’s throats for most of the summer, we all returned to the mainland intact (well mostly at least!).


Post script: I was finally certified an Advance SCUBA diver after 35 days and 3000 wisecracks from Vardhan.

 

 

Posted in Guest post | Tagged , , ,

Meet my new companion—Gulmohar

Gulmohar flowers announce the arrival of monsoon. Its bright red colours are
a harbinger of good times.

Triban Btwin 3

B Twin Triban 3 road bicycle

My harbinger of a good time has been my recently purchased bicycle. It is a kind of bike that is popularly known as a road bike. With a sleek and sexy body, they are the elites of the cycling world. They are the gatekeepers against which others are judged.

The bug of purchasing a real road bike came to me when a friend offered to sell his old Colnago steel frame road bicycle. The offer was made just before I was leaving for the field to the Andaman Islands and on my return, I found that the bike was no longer available. With a bit of disappointment and the feeling of failure, I started searching for road bikes that are available on the Indian market. On some occasions, I would stay awake reading reviews about different bikes, and on others, I would try bicycles at different bicycle shops.

After two months of searching, I was unable to make a decision as there were too many options available on the market, and the only one that stood out was out of my budget. I contacted some veteran cyclist Lena Robra, Shrdha Rathod and Ashok Captain and got their opinion on a few models that I had shortlisted. I test rode a variety of bikes and decided that I will go with Focus or Marin bicycle.

It was on this journey of reviewing bikes that I came across the second-hand bicycle Triban 3 by Btwin. I jumped at the opportunity and contacted the owner, Akarsh Agrawal. We decided the place and time where we would meet. The test ride was not as smooth as I had expected, but what I saw was fairly close to what I was expecting– an alloy body, carbon forks, Shimano Sora shifters, an aggressive road bike position and a sturdy body. Without wasting any time, I sealed the deal with Akarsh who was generous and gave me a lot of other essentials that go with the cycle including a torch, tube, saddle bag, pump, puncture kit and so on.

On my return, I took it to the nearest service centre, and since then I have been riding the bike with the confidence of the Winner of the Tour de France. When the bike was new, I didn’t want to name it, but as I got comfortable, I thought the name is must. After all, a name means nothing, and a name means everything. To name a thing is to invite it to enmesh itself in your mind; to compress the essence of a gestalt into a single suggestive motif, from which it can be revived at will.

After much contemplation, I called my bicycle ‘Gulmohar’ after one of the most common flowering trees in Bangalore. In addition, the area where I cycle—Sahakar Nagar, Yellahanka, GKVK campus, has lots of Gulmohar trees. With flat roads and relatively less traffic, the cycling is a fun-filled activity.

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To me, Gulmohar is a dream that floats around the fringes of my imagination, a eulogy of the efficiency, technological triumph, and sheer beauty draped in bridal red. Riding Gulmohar brings me to the same feeling of elation that comes with gliding over colourful reefs. Gulmohar reminds me of re-committing myself towards a fitter life, and thus a beginning for new things to come.

I am sure I am not the only one with “Gulmohar” out there, but every bicycle lover probably feels the same way about the bicycle they own.


 

Posted in Random | Tagged ,

“What not to do in the field”: A how-not-to guide to field biology

Nitya Prakash Mohanty is a wildlife researcher working on the Andaman Islands, in the Bay of Bengal. His ongoing PhD study examines the Indian bullfrog’s recent introduction and subsequent invasion on the archipelago, far from the frog’s natural home on the Indian mainland. Nitya regularly writes articles in forums outside academia, to share fascinating stories of and from the wild and provides behind-the-scenes peeks into the glamorized world of wildlife and its research.


‘Guest post by Nitya Mohanty’

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Fieldwork at the edge of the sea

They say field biology is not easy. To spend months on end in isolated corners of the world, battling hostile weather or amassing tonnes of data must require true grit. Yet, every year universities churn out hundreds of field biologists who churn out knowledge based on their studies in forests, seas, and mountains. Before even dreaming of setting foot in the field, a biologist must train in concepts of study design, statistical analyses, equipment, and read a pile of research about his or her subject. But no amount of theory or demonstrations can prepare one for what awaits them in the field.

In my daily attempt to survive in the field, I have had more use of tales of ‘epic fails’ than of ‘mic drops’. One of the first mistakes I made in the field, a few kilometres into my first proper trek, was to ask how far the destination was. Straightforward as the question may seem, the answer demoralized the troop and sapped us all of any curiosity of the wildlife around. Another bright member of this group, who had packed a year’s supply of apples for a weekend trip, did not fare too well either. But, only a few acts of courage go beyond the decision to fast during a long trek. On the command of unearthly forces, a friend of mine relinquished the earthly necessities of feeding herself, while traversing the Western Ghats on foot. Though she didn’t miss out on much (read soybean dinners), we nearly missed out on her life. During this trip, I picked up many a wonderful memory along with a treacherous parasite – a tick, in the most unscrupulous of places. The experienced scarred me on many levels and made me nominate leeches as my favourite parasite, in the bloodsucking category.

 

'The lovely abode of leeches, a relatively decent parasite', Ashwini V Mohan

The lovely abode of leeches, a relatively decent parasite (Photo: Ashwini V Mohan)

Some field experiences come with the potential to inflict more than just a scar. A dear friend once made the mistake of trusting an armed forest guard to look out for one-horned rhinoceros while he set out collecting their dung. On the distant approach of the dung’s creator, the guard took off without as much as a warning shriek. My friend’s peripheral vision and superior arboreal skills helped him escape a two thousand kilo death. But some acts of trust do not pan out as well. In the long lasting tradition of craving food, while inebriated, two gentle souls once craved the wrong snack – a toxic puffer fish. Alas, their departed souls crave no more. Then again, some people are just plain lucky. A wildlife biologist would not have even graduated when in his early field days he picked up an unsuspecting snake early in the morning. “A cat snake!” he declared, educating us about its non-venomous nature. A friend with little more than just affection for snakes identified it to be a highly venomous Saw-scaled viper, just as the snake started moving to the heat. The cold-bloodedness of the snake, captured in the wee hours of the morning, helped my friend remain unharmed and un-fanged.

'When we collectively ignored a Malabar pit-viper' _Ashwini V Mohan

When we collectively ignored a Malabar pit-viper (Photo: Ashwini V Mohan)

With countless hours to spend in the field, there is a time for individual stupidity and then there is a time for collective stupidity. Some agile minds of my cohort where able swimmers too and decided to jump into a lagoon together. Only the lagoon had sharks. Another group of acquaintances repeated the same feat, with saltwater crocodiles. A large group of people sometimes lulls one into a false sense of security. While stepping across a fallen tree after a long day’s trek, each member of our group gripped a nearby sapling for support. I was the last one to cross and thankfully, snapped out of daydream just in time to avoid grabbing a Malabar pit-viper which had been on the sapling all along!

But by far the silliest thing I have done in the field is devoid of any confrontation with the wild. Upon completing a morning’s line transects counting deer, a colleague and I drove to pick up another team of two at the end of a nearby transect. We became restless as their scheduled time of arrival started veering way off the schedule. On hearing some movement near the clearing where we expected them, I called out in an inimitable code – a simple hoot. Pat came the reply of two hoots. We hooted back and forth for almost an hour in the anticipation of our impending meeting, and then the calling stopped abruptly. I called out in desperation for a while, only to find the missing duo approaching from the opposite direction. I may well have had communicated with poachers for the better part of that morning.

There are of course way too many such instructional tales to recount. In the face of a vast variety of life to study, field biologists come up with a vast array of harebrained schemes to look much less smart than they actually are. If there is a code in the field one must follow, it is not to laugh at a colleague’s mistake; rest assured you will outdo them. Mic drop.


Posted in Guest post | Tagged , , , , , , ,

Of butterflyfish and angelfish and their distribution

In our recent paper, just out of the oven, we make a case that latitude and live coral independently determine the species richness of butterflyfish and angelfish communities in the Andaman & Nicobar Islands.

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Vibrant coral reef at Cabra island

The idea for this paper started in the year 2015 when an intern Sowjanya Chandrasekhar started exploring the huge dataset, that my colleague Elrika D’Souza and I had collected in 2012 & 2013. Though we had collected data on all reef species, Sowjanya picked only two groups for their aesthetic elegance and their overall importance to the coral reef ecosystem. The butterflyfish are known as indicators of the health of coral reef ecosystem, whereas angelfish are dependent on reef habitat for structure. The initial plan was just to make a checklist of butterflyfish and angelfish. After the painstaking task of going through thousands of pictures, field guides and monographs, Sowjanya identified 30 species of butterflyfish belonging to four genera and 13 species of angelfish from 9 genera.

The idea further developed after a conversation with Aniruddha Marathe, my colleague and flatmate in Bangalore. Aniruddha works on how elevation gradients impact distribution on ant species in Arunachal Pradesh. Though there are no direct similarities in ants and fish, commonalities of distribution gradients in elevation and latitude were a good enough reason for us to work together. Meanwhile, Sowjanya was accepted for the James Cook University Master’s programme, whereas I left for the field and spent most of my time in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands to collect 2016 bleaching related data.

After exploratory analysis, a few questions that piqued our curiosity were: Why certain species are found only in some areas? Why is the distribution of some species patchy? Is species richness higher in the islands that are closer to the Centre of origin of the coral reefs? And most importantly, how do natural disturbances alter the patterns of species distribution? The fact that the Andaman and Nicobar Islands have 6 to 13 ° latitudinal gradient was a good enough reason for us to follow-up on these questions. With scattered information of a dataset spread across 75 sites and 51 islands, we explored the relationship between 1) species richness and latitude,  2) species richness and important benthic variables i.e., live coral, dead coral, algae, 3) species diversity and latitude, and 4) species diversity and benthic variables for butterflyfish and angelfish.

The initial findings were interesting and the results met most of our predictions. We found that live coral cover and latitude were the best predictors for explaining variation in the distribution of these fish communities across the A & N archipelago. This is probably because of the high dependence of these two fish groups on the live coral cover and Nicobar’s geographical proximity to the Coral Triangle, which is considered to be the centre of origin of coral reefs and supports high biodiversity.

While it is great news that these fish groups are surviving despite repeated catastrophic disturbances, loss of coral structure or habitat is still the greatest threat to these species. Yellow teardrop butterflyfish, with two sightings in the Central Nicobar region and North Andaman region and Three-spot angelfish, with one sighting in the South Andaman region, are especially vulnerable as they were observed only at select locations. Our results show that despite the high dependence of butterflyfish and angelfish on live coral cover, reduction of live coral cover due to series of disturbances (tsunami, bleaching) events had limited influence on species richness of these two fish groups, indicating that broad geographical trends are important in explaining variation in species richness for butterflyfish and angelfish groups.

The manuscript writing took almost six months. After lots of discussions, debates, and endless arguments over coffee, we submitted the manuscript to the journal Coral Reefs.  We were relieved when we got to know that the manuscript is in a review. Unfortunately, the decision of the editor, Dr. Michel Berumen was to ‘reject’ the paper, but the suggestions and feedback we received were very useful. We incorporated all the changes and then sent out the paper to the journal Marine Biodiversity as per the suggestion by Dr. Berumen.

To our dismay, the paper was rejected once again. However, this time the journal was keen on receiving a fresh draft after addressing all the comments. We quickly got our acts together, and addressed all the possible comments raised by the reviewers and provided an explanation for the few comments that we were unable to address. Finally, after several iterations, the paper that came out of this collaboration is rather interesting, especially in times when more corals are being damaged due to global climate change and human impacts. This paper is a rare example of practising geographical ecology in marine systems.

Angelfish_Vardhan Patankar

Emperor angelfish, (Pomacanthus imperator)

We look forward to your criticisms, comments and perspectives on this work. Thank you for taking time to read the paper and a blog post!


 

 

 

 

Posted in Science reporting, Underwater